Likelihood ratio for paternity (PI)
 PI = X/Y, where
 X=P(genetic types  man=father)
 Y=P(genetic types  man not father)
 Interpretations:
 Odds favoring paternity over nonpaternity assuming all other evidence
is equally divided
 Evidence is PI times more characteristic of paternity
 What the "exclusion" method is
 Likelihood ratio for Paternity (PI)
 Other basic kinship situations

Avuncular index (Is the man an uncle?)
 Other kinship cases
 Missing person kinship case
 Other applications of the likelihood ratio
 Null allele
 Mutation
 PI when possible mutation
 Mutation analysis: concept
 Paternity case: one "exclusion"
 Paternity case: two "exclusions"
 Mutation (old method)
 Old mutation formula
 Old mutation formula is
 Mutation model (old formula)
 Mutation model (more realistic)
 Reasonable mutation model, STR's
 Mutation LR (new, for STR's)
 STR mutation rates
 Mutation reference
 Kinship II (advanced)
 More than two scenarios
 Three scenarios –
 Father/Uncle/Unrelated analysis
 Likelihood ratios are "transitive"
 DNAVIEW software
 Summary
 Thanks
